Cydalima perspectalis

The box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis) is a lepidoptera which belongs to the Crambidae family. It originates from East Asia but it has been also found throughout Europe as invasive exotic species since 2006. It feeds on box trees leaves and causes severe defoliation.

box tree

 

Cydalima perspectalis moth

 


MORPHOLOGY AND BIOLOGY

The adult moths have a wingspan of about 4 cm. The body is largely white with a brown head and lower abdomen. The adults have a thick dark brown border around the edges of white-coloured wings. Also, the wings have a characteristic white spot.

 Cydalima perspectalis adult

 

Cydalima perspectalis adult

The female lays clusters of 10 up to 30 eggs on the underside of the leaves of the box tree where they are surrounded by a translucent gelatinous mass. The egg is round shape and measuring approximately 0.8 – 1 mm diameter. At the beginning it is pale yellow but as it matures, the egg develops a black spot where each larval head capsule is forming.

The neonate larvae mesure between 1 and 2 mm long up to 35 – 44 mm when they are completely developed. The larvae (caterpillars) are characterized by an entirely velvety light green body and a black head. Also, they develop a striking pattern of thick black and thin white stripes along the length of the body, with large black dots outlined in white on the dorsal side. The larvae of Cydalima perspectalis feed on mature leaves of box tree species (Buxus spp.). Total defoliation of these trees happend when Cydalima perspectalis caterpillar reaches a large number of population.

Cydalima perspectalis pupa

 

Cydalima perspectalis pupa

Cydalima perspectalis larva

 

Cydalima perspectalis larva

It overwinters as caterpillar, hidden between box leaves that have been spun together with silk in late autumn, and completes its development in spring.

In this season, it develops as pupa which mesures between 25 – 30 mm long. After the pupal phase, whose duration varies between 10 and 14 days, the adult moth emerges from the chrysalis. The flight of the adult Cydalima Perspectalis for mating is at night and it normally happens in late May – early June. The adult has a positive phototropism, its movement is towards the source of light.

The number of generations per year can vary from 1 to 4, mainly depending on climate.

Source: Gobierno de Navarra. Servicio de Conservación de la Biodiversidad. Sección de Gestión Forestal.


DETECTION AND MONITORING

1 to 3 traps per hectare should be placed at the same height as the crops, in the box trees or on specific supports. The traps should be placed in late May – early June.


MASS TRAPPING

The males of this species are specifically captured in order to reduce mating. In this way, the pest population is reduced.

For mass trapping, the amount of traps per surface area must be increased, depending on the location and uniformity of the plots. One trap controls a surface area between 500 and 1.000 m2. This means a density of at least 20 traps per hectare.On the borders of the plots, it will be necessary to place a barrier of traps separated 10 to 15 metres from each other.



NECESSARY MATERIAL

ECONEX POLILLERO (Code: TA001), ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets (Code: TA118) or ECONEX DISPOSABLE TRIANGULAR (Code: TA242) and a pheromone diffuser: ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS 2 MG 60 DAYS or ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS 3 MG 200 DAYS, that lasts 60 or 200 days (depending on the chosen product) in field conditions.

ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS 2 MG 60 DAYS

ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS 2 MG 60 DAYS
pheromone diffuser and
packaging of the product.
(Code: VA348)

Buy3.25 € (excl. VAT)

ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS 3 MG 200 DÍAS

ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS 3 MG 200 DÍAS
pheromone diffuser and
packaging of the product.
(Code: VA373)

Buy3.84 € (excl. VAT)

ECONEX POLILLERO

ECONEX POLILLERO
(Code: TA001)

Buy5.98 € (excl. VAT)

ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets

ECONEX WHITE
TRIANGULAR without sheets

(Code: TA118)

Buy4.20 € (excl. VAT)

ECONEX DISPOSABLE TRIANGULAR

ECONEX DISPOSABLE
TRIANGULAR

(Code: TA242)

Buy1.84 € (excl. VAT)

The trap ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets is activated by placing an ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR (Code: TA248) on its base. The sheet is impregnated with a pressure-sensitive adhesive, without solvents, in which the insects are trapped. This trap also includes a special hanger. The trap ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR is coated on its inner face with a layer of contact adhesive, solvent free, for the retention of the insects.

Both traps stand out above all for their simplicity of use, and will be operative until pheromone depletion or saturation of the sheet or adhesive surface. The ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS pheromone diffuser is placed inside the trap on the sheet or adhesive surface.


PERIOD OF USE

To obtain good control of the Cydalima perspectalis moth, it is advisable to combine two methods: detection and monitoring; and mass trapping. In late May – early June, 1 to 3 traps per hectare should be placed for the detection of the pest and observation of its population levels.

Life cicle Cydalima perspectalis

With tolerance thresholds established in each area, the moment to adopt control measures, in this case mass trapping, can later be defined. The tolerance threshold for Cydalima perspectalis is very low and varies depending on the area. In general, it is approximately 3 captures per trap and per week. For mass trapping, traps should be placed throughout the plots.


DAMAGES

Cydalima perspectalis is related to plants of the Buxus genus (Buxus sempervirens, Buxus microphylla, Buxus sinica, Buxus colchicum).

The feeding damage produced by the larva on the leaf edges is one of the most visible symptoms. This causes severe defoliation of the box trees which reduce the performance of their photosynthesis process (among other consequences).

Cydalima perspectalis caterpillar feeds on leaves of the box tree

 

Cydalima perspectalis caterpillar feeds on leaves of the box tree

Severely defoliated box trees due to Cydalima perspectalis caterpillar

 

Severely defoliated box trees due to Cydalima perspectalis caterpillar

However, when larvae attack the bark of the box trees, causing them to dry out and die is the most serious damage.

Bojes secos

The first generation of Cydalima perspectalis causes less damage to box trees than the second and later generations, in which this most serious damage can happen.

Source: Gobierno de Navarra. Servicio de Conservación de la Biodiversidad. Sección de Gestión Forestal.


RESULTS

If specialists or farmers use the traps and pheromones correctly, as previously described, especially during the early stages when adults of the first generation appear, then this monitoring system is very effective. A very low level of damage has been demonstrated. A level of control of more than 95% is very common, especially in large areas of crops.

A limiting factor of this system could be when there are small plots distributed in many areas and the neighbours have a high level of this pest infestation.

Despite some important basic rules for the effective monitoring of Cydalima perspectalis, farmers or specialists have to find their own system to achieve it. They can experiment with this system, even establishing their own tolerance thresholds.


FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NUMBER OF TRAPS NEEDED

The pest population, the bordering crops, the level of control required, etc…

One important factor is the size of the crop. In small and irregular crops, a greater number of traps are required than in larger and more uniform plots.

Another important factor is the distance between plots that have the same pest. In cases like this, the borders of the plots must be reinforced, so it could be necessary to place up to 20 traps per hectare or even more for mass trapping.


ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS 2 MG 60 DAYS – PACKAGING

Corrugated cardboard box of 3000 units (150 packs of 20 units)
Box size: 0.60 × 0.40 × 0.35 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 9.8 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20.
Pallet size: 1.20 × 0.80 × 1.90 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 203 kg.
Envase de 20 unidades

150 packs of 20 units
Includes a product
information leaflet.

Caja con 3.000 Unidades

Corrugated cardboard box of 3000 units
(150 packs of 20 units)


ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS 3 MG 200 DAYS – PACKAGING

Corrugated cardboard box of 3000 units (150 packs of 20 units)
Box size: 0.60 × 0.40 × 0.35 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 9.8 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20.
Pallet size: 1.20 × 0.80 × 1.90 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 203 kg.
Envase de 20 unidades

150 packs of 20 units
Includes a product
information leaflet.

Caja con 3.000 Unidades

Corrugated cardboard box of 3000 units
(150 packs of 20 units)


Recommended Information:

ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS LEAFLET

Leaflet in PDF format that can be downloaded by clicking on the image.

ECONEX WEB RESOURCES

ECONEX corporate website section that allows you to access online information on ECONEX solutions for the biocontrol of other especially relevant agricultural and forestry pests.

To access the ECONEX WEB RESOURCES click on the image.

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