Cydalima perspectalis

Biocontrol of the box tree moth

Common name: Box tree moth
Scientific name: Cydalima perspectalis
Order: Lepidoptera
Affects: Buxus sp
Main season: Spring, Summer and Autumn

Cydalima perspectalis

General information

The box tree moth Cydalima perspectalis is a lepidopteran from the Crambidae family and native to East Asia. Since 2006, it has also extended throughout Europe as an exotic invasive species. This pest has become a problem for the boxwood trees, as it feeds on their leaves and severely defoliates them.

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Cydalima perspectalis pupa


Morphology and biology

The adults have an approximate wingspan of 4 cm. They have a white body except for the head and the last segment of the abdomen, which are brown. The wings are white and slightly iridescent with a dark brown band on the outer margin and a characteristic white dot on the back of the wing.


Cydalima perspectalis adult

Cydalima perspectalis adult


The eggs are laid in groups of 10 to 30 eggs. These are deposited on the underside of the leaves, covered with a mucilaginous substance. The eggs are round with an approximate diameter of 0,8-1 mm. Initially, they are a pale yellow colour and then later show a black spot corresponding to the cephalic capsule of the larva.

At birth, the larvae measure 1-2 mm, reaching 35-44 mm at the end of their development. The head is black, shiny and the body is green. On the dorsal side the body, they have two lines of black stripes bordered by a thin white stripe and large black dots outlined in white in all segments. The larvae have hair all over their bodies. The larvae also prefer to feed on the most mature leaves. When the population density is very high, the larvae can cause total defoliation of the box plant.

Cydalima perspectalis larva

Cydalima perspectalis larva

Cydalima perspectalis pupa

Cydalima perspectalis pupa


The young caterpillars hibernate by placing themselves between two leaves joined together by silk webbing, continuing their attack in Spring.

The pupae measure between 1,5 and 2 cm long. The pupal phase lasts between 10 and 14 days. The flight period generally occurs between the end of May and beginning of June. Flight also happens at night with Cydalima perspectalis displaying positive phototropism, because they are attracted to sources of light.

The number of generations can vary between 1 and 4 annually, depending mainly on the temperature.

Source: Gobierno de Navarra. Servicio de Conservación de la Biodiversidad. Sección de Gestión Forestal.


Damage

The box tree moth attacks all species of the Buxus genus (Buxus sempervirens, Buxus microphylla, Buxus sinica, Buxus colchicum).

The most visible damage is caused by the larvae on the leaves. When feeding they cause severe defoliation which, amongst other consequences, limit photosynthetic capacity.

Cydalima perspectalis caterpillar feeding on a box tree shrub.

Cydalima perspectalis caterpillar feeding on a box tree shrub


Boxwood defoliated by Caterpillar

Box tree shrubs defoliated by an attack from Cydalima perspectalis caterpillars


However, the most serious damage seems to stem from its attack on the bark, which can lead to the drying up and death of the plant.

Boxwood defoliated by Caterpillar

The first generation of insects is the one that causes the least damage, the second or later generations are the ones that cause the plants to dry out.

Source: Gobierno de Navarra. Servicio de Conservación de la Biodiversidad. Sección de Gestión Forestal.


Period of use

To obtain good control of Cydalima perspectalis, it is advisable to combine two methods: detection and monitoring, then mass trapping. In late May to early June, 1 to 3 traps per hectare should be placed for the detection of the pest and observation of its population levels.


Biological cycle of Cydalima perspectalis

With tolerance thresholds established in each area, the moment to adopt control measures; in this case mass trapping is then defined. The tolerance threshold for Cydalima perspectalis is very low and varies depending on the area. In general, is it approximately 3 captures per trap and per week. This is the moment in which we recommend placing traps throughout the plot for mass capture.


BIOCONTROL

Detection and monitoring


1 to 3 traps per hectare, should be placed at the same height as the crops. They can also be placed on trees or on a support for this purpose. The traps should be placed from the end of May to the beginning of June.



Mass captures


The males of this species are primarily caught, in order to reduce mating. This way, the population of the pest decreases.

For mass trapping, the number of traps per surface area must be increased, depending on the location and uniformity of the plots. One trap controls a surface area between 500 and 1.000 m². This means that a density of at least 20 traps per hectare is needed. On the plot borders, it will be necessary to place a barrier of traps separated 10 to 15 metres from each other.


Necessary material


An ECONEX POLILLERO, ECONEX FOLDING WHITE TRIANGULAR WITHOUT SHEETS or ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR and a pheromone diffuser ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS 2 MG 60 DAYS or ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS 3 MG 200 DAYS, with a duration in normal field conditions of 60 and 200 days respectively.

Diffuser Cydalima perspectalis 60 days

ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS 2 MG 60 DAYS
Sexual pheromone diffuser of the species Cydalima perspectalis to attract males, with a duration of 60 days in normal field conditions

Code: UIPHOVA348
OMDF register number (Ministry of Agriculture of Spain): 097/2017

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Difusor Cydalima perspectalis 200 dias

ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS 3 MG 200 DAYS
Sexual pheromone diffuser of the species Cydalima perspectalis to attract males, with a duration of 200 days in normal field conditions.

Code: UIPHOVA373

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Difusor Cydalima perspectalis 60 dias

ECONEX POLILLERO

Code: UIPFETA001
OMDF register number (Ministry of Agriculture of Spain): 123/2015

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ECONEX FOLDING WHITE TRIANGULAR WITHOUT SHEETS

ECONEX FOLDING WHITE TRIANGULAR WITHOUT SHEETS

Code: UIPFETA273
OMDF register number (Ministry of Agriculture of Spain): 064/2014

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ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR.

ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR

Code: UIPFETA248

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ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR

ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR

Code: UIPFETA242

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The ECONEX FOLDING WHITE TRIANGULAR WITHOUT SHEETS trap is activated by placing an ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR 1 UNIT on its base. The sheet is impregnated with a pressure sensitive adhesive, in which the insects become trapped. ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR The is coated on the inside with a layer of contact adhesive, without solvents to retain the insects.


Factors that influence the number of traps needed

The pest population, bordering crops, level of control required, etc.

One important factor is the size of the plot. In small and irregular plots, a greater number of traps is required than in larger and more uniform plots.

Another important factor is the distance between plots that have Cydalima perspectalis. In such cases, the plot borders must be reinforced. Therefore, a density of at least 20 traps per hectare or more may be required in the case of mass captures.


Storing the diffusers

The diffusers must be stored in their original packaging in a cool and dry place and separated from food and drinks.

To preserve the diffusers for long periods of time, it is recommended to keep them in the refrigerator at 4 o C in which case they will last for 2 years. Or they can be kept in the freezer at -20 o C for 4 years.


Diffuser packaging


ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS 2 MG 60 DAYS

Corrugated cardboard box of 400 units (20 packs of 20 units).
Box size: 0.32 x 0.24 x 0.22 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 1.5 kg.

ECONEX CYDALINA PRESPECTALIS 60 DAYS

Pack of 20 units
Includes a product information leaflet.



ECONEX CYDALINA PRESPECTALIS 60 DAYS BOX 400 U.

Box of 400 units. (20 packs of 20 units)


ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS 3 MG 200 DAYS

Corrugated cardboard box of 400 units (20 packs of 20 units).
Box size: 0.32 x 0.24 x 0.22 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 1.5 kg.

ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS 3 MG 200 DAYS

Pack of 20 units
Includes a product information leaflet.



ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS 3 MG 200 DAYS BOX OF 400 U.

Box of 400 units. (20 packs of 20 units)


Trap packaging


ECONEX POLILLERO

Corrugated cardboard box of 35 units.
Box size: 0.60 x 0.40 x 0.35 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 9.80 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20
Pallet size: 1.20 x 0.80 x 1.95 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 206 kg.

ECONEX Polillero

Box of 35 units.

ECONEX FOLDING WHITE TRIANGULAR WITHOUT SHEETS

Corrugated cardboard box of 150 units.
Box size: 0.60 x 0.40 x 0.35 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 10.60 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 20
Pallet size: 1.20 x 0.80 x 1.95 m (length x width x height).
PPallet weight: 222 kg.

Box of 150 units

Box of 150 units.

ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR 1 UNIT

Corrugated cardboard box of 500 units.
Box size: 0.42 x 0.29 x 0.21 m (length x width x height).
PBox weight: 10.75 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 50
Pallet size: 1.10 x 1.00 x 1.25 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 545 kg.

Caja con 500 unidades

Box of 500 units.

ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR

Corrugated cardboard box of 250 units.
Box size: 0.42 x 0.29 x 0.21 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 13.10 kg.
No. of boxes per pallet: 50
Pallet size: 1.10 x 1.00 x 1.25 m (length x width x height).
Pallet weight: 665 kg.

Caja con 250 unidades

Box of 250 units.


Recommended information:


ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS LEAFLET

The leaflet can be downloaded in PDF format by clicking on the image.

ECONEX CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS LEAFLET


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